Polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) is a hormonal disorder in woman’s body, which can be diagnosed according to two or three manifestations of the Rotterdam criteria: oligoovulation or anovulation (irregular or absent ovulation), excess hair growth, polycystic ovaries. Follicles in the ovaries grow, mature but the dominant follicle does not form or rupture. As a result, ovulation does not occur. Due to the hormonal disorder in the ovaries, the level of female sex hormones (estrogens) decreases and the level of male sex hormones (androgens) increases. Consequently, the menstrual cycle and ovulation are disturbed and a woman can have male-pattern hair growth. Decreased estrogen level in the body causes the production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which induces the ovaries to grow follicles and produce estrogens.
TREATMENT: The method of treatment depends on a woman’s sexual life and plans for pregnancy.
- Women who are not sexually active are treated with steroid hormones gestagens. The treatment itself is a long-term and lasts for several months. Such treatment is able to restore the normal cyclicality of estrogens and progesterone, the menstrual period gets regular.
- Women who are sexually active and do not plan to get pregnant are treated with combined oral contraceptives. They also stop the male-pattern hair growth.
- Women who are planning to get pregnant in the future are usually treated by stimulating ovulation. However, the tactics of treatment may differ, accordingly to the patient’s weight, concentration of hormones in blood and other factors.
- Surgical procedures are recommended when the treatment with medicines is not effective, especially in cases with infertility. In a case of laparoscopy, the ovaries are infringed in 4-7 places to decrease the level of androgens and other biologically active substances. The harm to the ovary is very minimal, in order to avoid the postoperative adhesion. After the procedure, menstrual cycle gets normal for the half of all patients, 60-70% of them can get pregnant. Usually, increased hair growth remains but it can be fixed by cosmetic procedures.