RADIOLOGICAL TESTS are one of the most significant parts in the field of diagnostics, which need only increases each day. Radiological tests have become more accurate and less harmful to a patient’s health.
- Computed tomography (CT) is a radiological diagnostics test that uses ionising radiation. The tested part of the body is scanned in thin layers, therefore, a physician is able to accurately detect the disease. The test is used to detect particular pathologies such as multiple chest bone traumas, abdominal/pelvic, lung, bone fractures or brain injury.The amount of radiation is rather high. Before the test a patient may be asked to drink water or contrast fluid. The test takes fifteen minutes. CT is prohibited if a patient is sensitive to iodic preparation (contract fluid), has heart arrhythmia or is pregnant.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRT) is an advanced and safe test method, which uses strong magnetic field and radio waves. MRT tests soft tissue, there is no radiation involved. Three hours prior to abdominal and pelvic MRT, a patient cannot eat or drink. The test takes from fifteen minutes to one hour. MRT is prohibited if a person has any metal valves or stimulators, neurostimulators, insulin or any other medicine pumps, metals implants, internal fixating disks or metal fragments.
- X-ray is a non-invasive test which allows seeing a patient’s anatomical structures using a small dosage of ionic radiation. This is one of the oldest and most commonly used tests to get the view of bones and internal organs.
A test is prescribed to examine the functionality of many organs and bodily systems.The level of radiation is low, while the test takes up to five-ten minutes.
Mammography is a highly effective type of X-ray, during which a patient’s breast is diagnosed and screened. The test allows detecting any changes in breasts at an early stage, any cysts, malignant masses or any other abnormal findings.
Mammography as the primary test is conducted on middle aged women, since their breast glandular tissue starts to disappear and there is more adipose tissue which conducts X-ray very well and all pathological masses show up very clearly. Therefore the basal mammography is recommend for women at the age of 35, while a woman from 40 should have this test every 1,5 or two years, even if they are not at risk for breast cancer. Regular mammography decreases a chance of breast cancer down to 30 percent.
- Ultrasound (echoscopy) is a safe test that operates with high frequencies to observe and examine internal organs, seeing their size, form and texture. The test is not harmful and most frequently used to examine unrecognised abdominal pains; in addition, it helps detecting rather small and sometimes initial changes in organs. The test takes about 15 to 20 minutes.
- DEXA bone densinometry is a radiological test that measures bone density. The test takes from 10 to 30 minutes. DEXA most commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis or bone fracture probabilities.
A patient should not take any calcium at least 24 hours prior to the test. A physician should be informed if a patient has undergone any radiological tests not a long time ago (X-ray with contract fluid or CT). Female patients have to inform a physician about pregnancy. A patient needs to stay calm and still during the test, if necessary one has to hold their breath for few seconds for a better view.